July 30, 2019

054 Venom Variation

Venom can be deadly, but not all venoms are created equal. They serve different purposes and have evolved for different reasons. In this episode we discuss a couple of new papers around the theme of venom, and finish off with a venomous new species for our Species of the Bi-week.

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Main Paper References:

Goetz, S. M., Piccolomini, S., Hoffman, M., Bogan, J., Holding, M. L., Mendonça, M. T., & Steen, D. A. (2019). Serum-based inhibition of pitviper venom by eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi). Biology Open, 5.

Healy, K., Carbone, C., & Jackson, A. L. (2019). Snake venom potency and yield are associated with prey-evolution, predator metabolism and habitat structure. Ecology Letters, 22(3), 527–537. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13216

Species of the Bi-Week:

Captain, A., Deepak, V., Pandit, R., Bhatt, B., & Athreya, R. (2019). A new species of pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Trimeresurus Lacepède, 1804) from West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 26, 13.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Barlow, A., Pook, C. E., Harrison, R. A., & Wüster, W. (2009). Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1666), 2443-2449.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2004.02.008

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

July 16, 2019

053 In Defense of Eggs

A slightly hap-hazard episode looking at some brave lizards facing down an ever present snake menace. Lizards have to stop nest raiding some-how and a couple of recent papers shed some light on how. We also have a well armoured Species of the Bi-week. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

Main Paper References:

Pike, D. A., Clark, R. W., Manica, A., Tseng, H.-Y., Hsu, J.-Y., & Huang, W.-S. (2016). Surf and turf: Predation by egg-eating snakes has led to the evolution of parental care in a terrestrial lizard. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 22207. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22207

Sherbrooke, W. C. (2017). Antipredator Nest Guarding by Female Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma): Iguanian Parental Care. Herpetologica, 73(4), 331–337. https://doi.org/10.1655/Herpetologica-D-17-00028.1

Species of the Bi-Week:

Avila-Pires, T. C., Nogueira, C., & Martins, M. (2019). A new ‘horned’’ Stenocercus from the highlands of southeastern Brazil, and redescription of Stenocercus tricristatus (Reptilia: Tropiduridae)’. Zoologia, 36, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3897/zoologia.36.e22909

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Huang, W.-S., Greene, H. W., Chang, T.-J., & Shine, R. (2011). Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(18), 7455–7459. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1101804108

Origgi, F. C., Schmidt, B. R., Lohmann, P., Otten, P., Meier, R. K., Pisano, S. R., ... & Gaschen, V. (2018). Bufonid herpesvirus 1 (BfHV1) associated dermatitis and mortality in free ranging common toads (Bufo bufo) in Switzerland. Scientific reports, 8(1), 14737. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32841-0

Willson, J. D., & Winne, C. T. (2016). Evaluating the functional importance of secretive species: A case study of aquatic snake predators in isolated wetlands. Journal of Zoology, 298(4), 266–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12311

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

Salamanders are famous for being slippery and liking water, but we uncover some new and surprising elements in their ecology. Stay tuned for a Species of the Bi-Week that resembles a breakfast favourite.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Mezebish, T. D., Blackman, A., & Novarro, A. J. (2018). Salamander climbing behavior varies among species and is correlated with community composition. Behavioral Ecology, 29(3), 686–692. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ary022

Moldowan, P. D., Alex Smith, M., Baldwin, T., Bartley, T., Rollinson, N., & Wynen, H. (2019). Nature’s pitfall trap: Salamanders as rich prey for carnivorous plants in a nutrient‐poor northern bog ecosystem. The Scientific Naturalist, e02770. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2770

Species of the Bi-Week:

Sugawara, H., Watabe, T., Yoshikawa, T., & Nagano, M. (2018). Morphological and Molecular Analyses of Hynobius dunni Reveal a New Species from Shikoku, Japan. Herpetologica, 74(2), 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1655/Herpetologica-D-17-00002.1

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Adams, D. C., & Rohlf, F. J. (2000). Ecological character displacement in Plethodon: Biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4106–4111. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.8.4106

Other Links/Mentions:

Roberts, W. E. (1994). Explosive breeding aggregations and parachuting in a Neotropical frog, Agalychnis saltator (Hylidae). Journal of Herpetology, 193-199.

Stuart YE, Campbell TS, Hohenlohe PA, Reynolds RG, Revell LJ, Losos JB. 2014. Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener. Science. 346:463–466.

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

June 18, 2019

051 Python Surprise

Pythons are marvellous beasts: their lives and ways remain mysterious. We check out a paper that lifts the curtain on a secretive Australian snake –the woma python– what do they do with their time? We also look a little closer at python facultative thermogenesis, what is it, who does it? The Species of the Bi-week is a new multi-coloured snake from high in the cloud forests. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Brashears, J., & DeNardo, D. F. (2015). Facultative thermogenesis during brooding is not the norm among pythons. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 201(8), 817–825. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00359-015-1025-4

Bruton, M. J. (2013). Arboreality, excavation, and active foraging: novel observations of radiotracked woma pythons Aspidites ramsayi. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 56(2), 19.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Meneses-Pelayo, E., & Passos, P. (2019). New Polychromatic Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Eastern Portion of the Colombian Andes. Copeia, 107(2), 250. https://doi.org/10.1643/CH-18-163

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Cantalapiedra, J. L., Aze, T., Cadotte, M. W., Dalla Riva, G. V., Huang, D., Mazel, F., … Mooers, A. Ø. (2019). Conserving evolutionary history does not result in greater diversity over geological time scales. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 286(1904), 20182896. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2896

Chambers, E. A., & Hillis, D. M. (2019). The Multispecies Coalescent Over-splits Species in the Case of Geographically Widespread Taxa. Systematic Biology, syz042. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syz042

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

May 23, 2019

050 Toady, Toady, Tody

In this milestone episode we are talking about toads - how common Asian species are coping with changes in land use and how the same changes in Europe impact the poisonous gunk of the common toad Bufo bufo. Our Species of the Bi-Week has nice tubercles. 

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Main Paper References:

Bókony, V., Üveges, B., Verebélyi, V., Ujhegyi, N., & Móricz, Á. M. (2019). Toads phenotypically adjust their chemical defences to anthropogenic habitat change. Scientific Reports, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39587-3

Karraker, N. E., Fischer, S., Aowphol, A., Sheridan, J., & Poo, S. (2018). Signals of forest degradation in the demography of common Asian amphibians. PeerJ, 6, e4220. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4220

Species of the Bi-Week:

Carvalho, T. R. D., Giaretta, A. A., Angulo, A., Haddad, C. F. B., & Peloso, P. L. V. (2019). A New Amazonian Species of Adenomera (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Brazilian State of Pará: A Tody-Tyrant Voice in a Frog. American Museum Novitates, 3919(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1206/3919.1

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Arbuckle, K., Brockhurst, M., & Speed, M. P. (2013). Does chemical defence increase niche space? A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Musteloidea. Evolutionary Ecology, 27(5), 863–881. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-013-9629-z

Karraker, N. E., & Welsh Jr, H. H. (2006). Long-term impacts of even-aged timber management on abundance and body condition of terrestrial amphibians in Northwestern California. Biological Conservation, 131(1), 132-140.

Møller A et al. 2015 Effects of urbanization on bird phenology: a continental study of paired urban and rural populations. Climate Res. 66, 185– 199. (doi:10.3354/cr01344)

Pramuk, J. B., Robertson, T., Sites, J. W., & Noonan, B. P. (2008). Around the world in 10 million years: Biogeography of the nearly cosmopolitan true toads (Anura: Bufonidae). Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17(1), 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00348.x

Other Links/Mentions:

Call of Adenomera phonotriccus:

https://soundcloud.com/museugoeldi/canto-da-nova-especie-de-ra-da-amazonia-adenomera-phonotriccus

Link from Dr Levi Gray on twitter: https://t.co/eyEe6EXxxP

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

It is a dangerous world for small lizards. To survive a lizard may need to pull off some pretty ingenious escape maneuvers. In this episode we look at two lizards that dodge predators using water. For the Species of the Bi-week we check out a species more likely to elicit escape behaviour than undertake it. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Nirody, J. A., Jinn, J., Libby, T., Lee, T. J., Jusufi, A., Hu, D. L., & Full, R. J. (2018). Geckos Race Across the Water’s Surface Using Multiple Mechanisms. Current Biology, 28(24), 4046-4051.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.064

Swierk, L. (2019). ANOLIS AQUATICUS (= NOROPS AQUATICUS) (Water Anole). UNDERWATER BREATHING. Herpetological Review, 50(1), 134–135.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Carrasco, P. A., Grazziotin, F. G., Farfán, R. S. C., Koch, C., Ochoa, J. A., Scrocchi, G. J., … Chaparro, J. C. (2019). A new species of Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Pampas del Heath, southeastern Peru, with comments on the systematics of the Bothrops neuwiedi species group. Zootaxa, 4565(3), 301. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4565.3.1

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE (2012). It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108.

NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE (2018). Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586.

Other Links/Mentions:

Video of surface running in the wild: https://www.cell.com/cms/10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.064/attachment/5ca65509-66ab-4c2e-b882-81b2a32dacc6/mmc2.mp4

Video of surface running in the lab: https://www.cell.com/cms/10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.064/attachment/810c5bcb-6b9f-4294-88cc-0181b6fbe4e3/mmc3.mp4

Video of underwater breathing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDwqWAv1RO4

Gecko walking on water article: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/watch-a-gecko-runs-on-water

Which anole are you? https://www.playbuzz.com/item/d14bede2-6d3f-4814-92d2-2bd35caaedf5?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=ff&utm_campaign=ff&pb_traffic_source=facebook&fbclid=IwAR0IOp1Gczd2rrUBHC_ajsXDMKkUyRtJtvySoSPFV_qNTQbvAp9EVvsN06k

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

In this Patreon episode we delve into the world of amphibians - how will frogs, toads, salamanders and friends cope with human-induced climate alterations? We round off with a puddle-loving Species of the Bi-Week who is new to science.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References: 

Miller, D. A., Grant, E. H. C., Muths, E., Amburgey, S. M., Adams, M. J., Joseph, M. B., ... & Calhoun, D. L. (2018). Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities. Nature communications, 9(1), 3926.

Üveges, B., Mahr, K., Szederkényi, M., Bókony, V., Hoi, H., & Hettyey, A. (2016). Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians. Scientific reports, 6, 26754.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Goutte, S., Reyes-Velasco, J., & Boissinot, S. (2019). A new species of puddle frog from an unexplored mountain in southwestern Ethiopia (Anura, Phrynobatrachidae, Phrynobatrachus). ZooKeys, (824), 53.

Other mentioned papers:

Morgan, M. J., Hunter, D., Pietsch, R. O. D., Osborne, W., & Keogh, J. S. (2008). Assessment of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Australian corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree and Pseudophryne pengilleyi, identifies four evolutionarily significant units for conservation. Molecular Ecology, 17(15), 3448-3463.

Other Links/Mentions:

Ross McGibbon reptile photography: https://www.facebook.com/RossMcGibbonReptilePhotography/ 

Steve Allain's new crowdfunder: https://www.gofundme.com/where-did-the-toads-come-from 

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

April 9, 2019

047 Iguanas Rock

Iguanas rock, and rock iguana’s doubly so. We check out the status of the Bahamas dwindling populations of Cay-dwelling rock iguana with stories of rampaging raccoons, troublesome translocations and polite pirates. Species of the Bi-week is a micro-endemic treat from Madagascar. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Hayes, W. K., Iii, R. A. E., Fry, S. K., Fortune, E. M., Wasilewski, J. A., Tuttle, D. M., … Carter, R. L. (2016). Conservation Of The Endangered Sandy Cay Rock Iguanas (Cyclura rileyi cristata): Invasive Species Control, Population Response, Pirates, Poaching, And Translocation. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 16.

Hayes, W. K., Jr, S. C., Crutchfield, T., Wasilewski, J. A., Rothfus, T. A., & Carter, R. L. (2016). Conservation Of The Endangered San Salvador Rock Iguanas (Cyclura rileyi rileyi): Population Estimation, Invasive Species Control, Translocation, And Headstarting. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 17.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Miralles, A., Glaw, F., Ratsoavina, F. M., & Vences, M. (2015). A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar. Zootaxa, 3946(2), 201. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3946.2.3

Other mentioned papers:

Honebrink, R., Buch, R., Galpin, P., & Burgess, G. H. (2011). First documented attack on a live human by a cookiecutter shark (Squaliformes, Dalatiidae: Isistius sp.). Pacific Science, 65(3), 365-375.

Malone, C.L., T. Wheeler, J.F. Taylor, and S.K. Davis. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean rock iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17:269–279.

Other Links/Mentions:

Link to Ants Canada vs blind snake: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4b4H979ia-E

Link to HerpConBio edition: http://www.herpconbio.org/contents_vol11_Monograph6.html

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

March 19, 2019

046 Stinky Turtles

Episode 46 is a Patreon episode about...musk turtles! These endearing little monsters live in the waterways of the USA and we examine their unusual mouths and diet preferences. Species of the Bi-Week is a squishy chelonian.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Heiss, E., Natchev, N., Beisser, C., Lemell, P., & Weisgram, J. (2010). The fish in the turtle: On the functionality of the oropharynx in the common musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus (Chelonia, Kinosternidae) concerning feeding and underwater respiration. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 293(8), 1416-1424.

Wilhelm, C. E., & Plummer, M. V. (2012). Diet of radiotracked Musk Turtles, Sternotherus odoratus, in a small urban stream. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 7(2), 258-264.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Farkas, B., Ziegler, T., Pham, C. T., Ong, A. V., & Fritz, U. (2019). A new species of Pelodiscus from northeastern Indochina (Testudines, Trionychidae). ZooKeys, (824), 71.

Other mentioned papers:

Snider, A.T. and J.K. Bowler. 1992. Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections. Second Edition. Herpetological Circulars No. 21.

Strokal, M., Ma, L., Bai, Z., Luan, S., Kroeze, C., Oenema, O., ... & Zhang, F. (2016). Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions. Environmental Research Letters, 11(2), 024014.

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

A surprise episode to tackle some of Patreon questions. A long ramble about ourselves changes into a chat about sea snake tongue flicking followed by rotating snake eyes. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

References:

Banks, M. S., Sprague, W. W., Schmoll, J., Parnell, J. A. Q., & Love, G. D. (2015). Why do animal eyes have pupils of different shapes? Science Advances, 1(7), e1500391. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500391

Heath, J. E., Northcutt, R. G., & Barber, R. P. (1969). Rotational optokinesis in reptiles and its bearing on pupillary shape. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie, 62(1), 75-85.

Munro, D. F. (1950). Vertical orientation of the eye in snakes. Herpetologica, 84-88.

Simões, B. F., Sampaio, F. L., Douglas, R. H., Kodandaramaiah, U., Casewell, N. R., Harrison, R. A., … Gower, D. J. (2016). Visual Pigments, Ocular Filters and the Evolution of Snake Vision. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(10), 2483–2495. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw148

van Doorn, K., & Sivak, J. G. (2013). Blood flow dynamics in the snake spectacle. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(22), 4190–4195. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.093658

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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