April 9, 2019

047 Iguanas Rock

Iguanas rock, and rock iguana’s doubly so. We check out the status of the Bahamas dwindling populations of Cay-dwelling rock iguana with stories of rampaging raccoons, troublesome translocations and polite pirates. Species of the Bi-week is a micro-endemic treat from Madagascar. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Hayes, W. K., Iii, R. A. E., Fry, S. K., Fortune, E. M., Wasilewski, J. A., Tuttle, D. M., … Carter, R. L. (2016). Conservation Of The Endangered Sandy Cay Rock Iguanas (Cyclura rileyi cristata): Invasive Species Control, Population Response, Pirates, Poaching, And Translocation. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 16.

Hayes, W. K., Jr, S. C., Crutchfield, T., Wasilewski, J. A., Rothfus, T. A., & Carter, R. L. (2016). Conservation Of The Endangered San Salvador Rock Iguanas (Cyclura rileyi rileyi): Population Estimation, Invasive Species Control, Translocation, And Headstarting. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 17.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Miralles, A., Glaw, F., Ratsoavina, F. M., & Vences, M. (2015). A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar. Zootaxa, 3946(2), 201. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3946.2.3

Other mentioned papers:

Honebrink, R., Buch, R., Galpin, P., & Burgess, G. H. (2011). First documented attack on a live human by a cookiecutter shark (Squaliformes, Dalatiidae: Isistius sp.). Pacific Science, 65(3), 365-375.

Malone, C.L., T. Wheeler, J.F. Taylor, and S.K. Davis. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean rock iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17:269–279.

Other Links/Mentions:

Link to Ants Canada vs blind snake: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4b4H979ia-E

Link to HerpConBio edition: http://www.herpconbio.org/contents_vol11_Monograph6.html

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

March 19, 2019

046 Stinky Turtles

Episode 46 is a Patreon episode about...musk turtles! These endearing little monsters live in the waterways of the USA and we examine their unusual mouths and diet preferences. Species of the Bi-Week is a squishy chelonian.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Heiss, E., Natchev, N., Beisser, C., Lemell, P., & Weisgram, J. (2010). The fish in the turtle: On the functionality of the oropharynx in the common musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus (Chelonia, Kinosternidae) concerning feeding and underwater respiration. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 293(8), 1416-1424.

Wilhelm, C. E., & Plummer, M. V. (2012). Diet of radiotracked Musk Turtles, Sternotherus odoratus, in a small urban stream. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 7(2), 258-264.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Farkas, B., Ziegler, T., Pham, C. T., Ong, A. V., & Fritz, U. (2019). A new species of Pelodiscus from northeastern Indochina (Testudines, Trionychidae). ZooKeys, (824), 71.

Other mentioned papers:

Snider, A.T. and J.K. Bowler. 1992. Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections. Second Edition. Herpetological Circulars No. 21.

Strokal, M., Ma, L., Bai, Z., Luan, S., Kroeze, C., Oenema, O., ... & Zhang, F. (2016). Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions. Environmental Research Letters, 11(2), 024014.

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

A surprise episode to tackle some of Patreon questions. A long ramble about ourselves changes into a chat about sea snake tongue flicking followed by rotating snake eyes. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

References:

Banks, M. S., Sprague, W. W., Schmoll, J., Parnell, J. A. Q., & Love, G. D. (2015). Why do animal eyes have pupils of different shapes? Science Advances, 1(7), e1500391. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500391

Heath, J. E., Northcutt, R. G., & Barber, R. P. (1969). Rotational optokinesis in reptiles and its bearing on pupillary shape. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie, 62(1), 75-85.

Munro, D. F. (1950). Vertical orientation of the eye in snakes. Herpetologica, 84-88.

Simões, B. F., Sampaio, F. L., Douglas, R. H., Kodandaramaiah, U., Casewell, N. R., Harrison, R. A., … Gower, D. J. (2016). Visual Pigments, Ocular Filters and the Evolution of Snake Vision. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(10), 2483–2495. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw148

van Doorn, K., & Sivak, J. G. (2013). Blood flow dynamics in the snake spectacle. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(22), 4190–4195. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.093658

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

February 26, 2019

045 King Among Cobras

All snakes all episode this fortnight, but not just any snakes. We are talking about snake-eaters. King amongst the snake-eaters is the king cobra, where do they roam and what threats are they facing? Jumping across to Africa we check out a newly described, and smaller, snake-eater. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Marshall, B. M., Strine, C. T., Jones, M. D., Artchawakom, T., Silva, I., Suwanwaree, P., & Goode, M. (2018). Space fit for a king: spatial ecology of king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) in Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Northeastern Thailand. Amphibia-Reptilia. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685381-18000008

Marshall, B. M., Strine, C. T., Jones, M. D., Theodorou, A., Amber, E., Waengsothorn, S., … Goode, M. (2018). Hits Close to Home: Repeated Persecution of King Cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) in Northeastern Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science, 11, 194008291881840. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918818401

Species of the Bi-Week:

Portillo, F., Branch, W. R., Tilbury, C. R., Nagy, Z. T., Hughes, D. F., Kusamba, C., ... & Greenbaum, E. (2019). A Cryptic New Species of Polemon (Squamata: Lamprophiidae, Aparallactinae) from the Miombo Woodlands of Central and East Africa. Copeia, 107(1), 22-35.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Barnes, Curt & Strine, Colin & Suwanwaree, Pongthep & Major, Tom. (2018). Cryptelytrops albolabris (white- lipped viper): Behavior. Herp Review. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325251521_Cryptelytrops_albolabris_white-_lipped_viper_Behavior

Barve, S., Bhaisare, D., Giri, A., Shankar, P. G., Whitaker, R., & Goode, M. (2013). A preliminary study on translocation of “rescued” King Cobras (Ophiophagus hannah). Hamadryad, 36(6), 80–86.

Bhaisare, D., Ramanuj, V., Shankar, P. G., Vittala, M., Goode, M. J., & Whitaker, R. (2010). Observations on a wild King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), with emphasis on foraging and diet. IRCF Reptiles Amphibians, 17(2), 95–102.

Hart, K. M., Cherkiss, M. S., Smith, B. J., Mazzotti, F. J., Fujisaki, I., Snow, R. W., & Dorcas, M. E. (2015). Home range, habitat use, and movement patterns of non-native Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Animal Biotelemetry, 3(8), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40317-015-0022-2

Hyslop, N. L., Meyers, J. M., Cooper, R. J., & Stevenson, D. J. (2014). Effects of body size and sex of Drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) on habitat use, movements, and home range size in Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management, 78(1), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.645

Kusamba, C., A. Resetar, V. Wallach, and Z. T. Nagy. (2013). Mouthful of snake: an African snake-eater’s (Polemon gracilis graueri) large typhlopid prey. Herpetology Notes 6: 235–237.

Strine, C. T., Silva, I., Crane, M., Nadolski, B., Artchawakom, T., Goode, M., & Suwanwaree, P. (2014). Mortality of a wild king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Northeast Thailand after ingesting a plastic bag. Asian Herpetological Research, 5(4), 284–286. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1245.2014.00284

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

February 12, 2019

044 Where Those Herps At?

This episode is all about how hard it is to find herpetofauna, and the difficulty that causes when you try to understand their populations. We finish with a handsome web-footed new species. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Barata, I. M., Griffiths, R. A., & Ridout, M. S. (2017). The power of monitoring: optimizing survey designs to detect occupancy changes in a rare amphibian population. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16491. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16534-8

Barata, I. M., Silva, E. P., & Griffiths, R. A. (2018). Predictors of Abundance of a Rare Bromeliad-Dwelling Frog ( Crossodactylodes itambe ) in the Espinhaço Mountain Range of Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 52(3), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1670/17-183

Ward, R. J., Griffiths, R. A., Wilkinson, J. W., & Cornish, N. (2017). Optimising monitoring efforts for secretive snakes: a comparison of occupancy and N-mixture models for assessment of population status. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 18074. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18343-5

Species of the Bi-Week:

Ron, S. R., Caminer, M. A., Varela-Jaramillo, A., & Almeida-Reinoso, D. (2018). A new treefrog from Cordillera del Cóndor with comments on the biogeographic affinity between Cordillera del Cóndor and the Guianan Tepuis (Anura, Hylidae, Hyloscirtus). ZooKeys, 809, 97–124. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.809.25207

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Barata, I. M., Santos, M. T., Leite, F. S., & Garcia, P. C. (2013). A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range. Zootaxa, 3731(4), 552-560.

Other Links/Mentions:

Wicked Wildlife on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWasdfCg-HlxOq4NUOshFFg

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

January 29, 2019

043 Lazy Dragons, Lazy Newts

This fortnight is a real mix of papers. We cover Komodo dragon dispersal, newts crossing (or not) roads, and a paper looking at reptilian brains. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

De Meester, G., Huyghe, K., & Van Damme, R. (2019). Brain size, ecology and sociality: a reptilian perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1–11.

Jessop, T. S., Ariefiandy, A., Purwandana, D., Ciofi, C., Imansyah, J., Benu, Y. J., … Phillips, B. L. (2018). Exploring mechanisms and origins of reduced dispersal in island Komodo dragons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 285(1891), 20181829. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1829

Matos, C., Petrovan, S. O., Wheeler, P. M., & Ward, A. I. (2018). Short‐term movements and behaviour govern the use of road mitigation measures by a protected amphibian. Animal Conservation.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Ciofi, C., Puswati, J., Dewa, W., de Boer, M. E., Chelazzi, G., & Sastrawan, P. (2007). Preliminary Analysis of Home Range Structure in the Komodo Monitor, Varanus komodoensis. Copeia, 2007(2), 462–470. https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2007)7[462:PAOHRS]2.0.CO;2

Harlow, H. J., Purwandana, D., Jessop, T. S., & Phillips, J. A. (2010). Size-related differences in the thermoregulatory habits of free-ranging komodo dragons. International Journal of Zoology, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/921371

Purwandana, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M. J., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., Letnic, M., & Jessop, T. S. (2016). Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny. Science of Nature, 103(27), 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-016-1351-6

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

January 15, 2019

042 A Christmas Miracle

Discussions of the reptiles of Christmas Island(s) abound in episode 42. We kick off with a paper about juvenile snake sizes and follow up with some info about reptiles crossing oceans. The Species of the Bi-Week is a brand new reptile which takes it's name from a fluffy mammal.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Aubret, F. (2015). Island colonisation and the evolutionary rates of body size in insular neonate snakes. Heredity, 115(4), 349–356. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2014.65

Oliver, P. M., Blom, M. P. K., Cogger, H. G., Fisher, R. N., Richmond, J. Q., & Woinarski, J. C. Z. (2018). Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia. Biology Letters, 14(6), 20170696. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0696

Species of the Bi-Week:

Wostl, E., Hamidy, A., Kurniawan, N., & Smith, E. N. (2017). A new species of Wolf Snake of the genus Lycodon H. Boie in Fitzinger (Squamata: Colubridae) from the Aceh Province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 4276(4), 539. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4276.4.6

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Andrew, P., Cogger, H., Driscoll, D., Flakus, S., Harlow, P., Maple, D., ... & Tiernan, B. (2018). Somewhat saved: a captive breeding programme for two endemic Christmas Island lizard species, now extinct in the wild. Oryx, 52(1), 171-174.

Aubret, F., & Shine, R. (2009). Genetic Assimilation and the Postcolonization Erosion of Phenotypic Plasticity in Island Tiger Snakes. Current Biology, 19(22), 1932–1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.061

Holt, B. G., Lessard, J.-P., Borregaard, M. K., Fritz, S. A., Araujo, M. B., Dimitrov, D., … Rahbek, C. (2013). An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World. Science, 339(6115), 74–78. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1228282

Herrel, A., Huyghe, K., Vanhooydonck, B., Backeljau, T., Breugelmans, K., Grbac, I., ... & Irschick, D. J. (2008). Rapid large-scale evolutionary divergence in morphology and performance associated with exploitation of a different dietary resource. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(12), 4792-4795.

Rocha, S., Carretero, M. A., Vences, M., Glaw, F., & James Harris, D. (2006). Deciphering patterns of transoceanic dispersal: the evolutionary origin and biogeography of coastal lizards (Cryptoblepharus) in the Western Indian Ocean region. Journal of Biogeography, 33(1), 13–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01375.x

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

 

December 11, 2018

041 Learned Lizards

Smart lizards!? Traditionally, lizards are thought of as simple, but this episode we look at some smart skinks whose intelligence allows them to learn from each other. We look at a couple factors that influence that itelligence. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

Main Paper References:

Munch, K. L., Noble, D. W. A., Botterill-James, T., Koolhof, I. S., Halliwell, B., Wapstra, E., & While, G. M. (2018). Maternal effects impact decision-making in a viviparous lizard. Biology Letters, 14(4), 20170556. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0556

Whiting, M. J., Xu, F., Kar, F., Riley, J. L., Byrne, R. W., & Noble, D. W. A. (2018). Evidence for Social Learning in a Family Living Lizard. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6(May). https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00070

Species of the Bi-Week:

Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Lim, K. K. P., & Liang, L. J. (2017). A new species of swamp-dwelling skink (Tytthoscincus) from Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 65(October), 574–584.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Beck, B. B. (1967). A Study of Problem Solving By Gibbons. Behaviour, 28(1–2), 95–109. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853967X00190

Dayananda, B., & Webb, J. K. (2017). Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards. Biology Letters, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0002

Duckett, P. E., Morgan, M. H., & Stow, A. J. (2012). Tree-dwelling populations of the skink Egernia striolata aggregate in groups of close kin. Copeia, 2012(1), 130-134.

Gardner, M. G., Hugall, A. F., Donnellan, S. C., Hutchinson, M. N., & Foster, R. (2008). Molecular systematics of social skinks: phylogeny and taxonomy of the Egernia group (Reptilia: Scincidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 154(4), 781-794.

Munch, K. L., Noble, D. W. A., Wapstra, E., & While, G. M. (2018). Mate familiarity and social learning in a monogamous lizard. Oecologia, 188(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4153-z

Riley, J. L., Küchler, A., Damasio, T., Noble, D. W. A., Byrne, R. W., & Whiting, M. J. (2018). Learning ability is unaffected by isolation rearing in a family-living lizard. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-017-2435-9

Riley, J. L., Noble, D. W. A., Byrne, R. W., & Whiting, M. J. (2017). Early social environment influences the behaviour of a family-living lizard. Royal Society Open Science, 4(5), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.161082

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

November 27, 2018

040 Complications of Captivity

This episode we are talking about the pet trade - from the livelihoods of people who collect wild reptiles and amphibians in Madagascar and through to one of the issues that sometimes arises: escapees becoming non-native nuisances. We round off with a Species of the Bi-Week in the form of a slippery new lizard.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Robinson, J. E., Griffiths, R. A., Fraser, I. M., Raharimalala, J., Roberts, D. L., & St. John, F. A. V. (2018). Supplying the wildlife trade as a livelihood strategy in a biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society, 23(1), art13. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09821-230113

Stringham, O. C., & Lockwood, J. L. (2018). Pet problems: Biological and economic factors that influence the release of alien reptiles and amphibians by pet owners. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(6), 2632–2640. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13237

Species of the Bi-Week:

Pui, Y. M., Karin, B. R., Bauer, A. M., & Das, I. (2017). A new species of Tropidophorus Duméril & Bibron, 1839 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Zootaxa, 4258(6), 539. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4258.6.3

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Auliya, M., Altherr, S., Ariano-Sanchez, D., Baard, E. H., Brown, C., Brown, R. M., … Ziegler, T. (2016). Trade in live reptiles, its impact on wild populations, and the role of the European market. Biological Conservation, 204, 103–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.017

Auliya, M., García-Moreno, J., Schmidt, B. R., Schmeller, D. S., Hoogmoed, M. S., Fisher, M. C., … Martel, A. (2016). The global amphibian trade flows through Europe: the need for enforcing and improving legislation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(13), 2581–2595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1193-8

Capinha, C., Seebens, H., Cassey, P., García-Díaz, P., Lenzner, B., Mang, T., … Essl, F. (2017). Diversity, biogeography and the global flows of alien amphibians and reptiles. Diversity and Distributions, 23(11), 1313–1322. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12617

Duffy, R., St John, F. A. V., Büscher, B., & Brockington, D. (2014). The militarization of anti-poaching: Undermining long term goals? Environmental Conservation, 42(4), 345–348. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892915000119

Lybbert, T. J., Aboudrare, A., Chaloud, D., Magnan, N., & Nash, M. (2011). Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(34), 13963-13968.

Other Links/Mentions:

Conservation chronicles: https://conservationchronicles.podbean.com/

Winter croc fest December 8, 2018 at Gatorama. Gatorama is an alligator farm and visitor attraction in Palmdale, Florida, USA.

Sami Asad frog video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pvwtaZPicI

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

Snakes, they’ve adapted to all sorts of environments. But what exactly has changed to allow them to take to the trees? This episode we check out what it takes to be arboreal and the impacts of taking arboreal prey. We head to the neotropics for the Species of the Bi-week for a colourful new snake. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Harrington, S. M., Haan, J. M. D. E., Shapiro, L., & Ruane, S. (2018). Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, XX, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly097/5056838

Siers, S. R., Yackel Adams, A. A., & Reed, R. N. (2018). Behavioral differences following ingestion of large meals and consequences for management of a harmful invasive snake: A field experiment. Ecology and Evolution, 8(20), 10075–10093. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4480

Species of the Bi-Week:

Bernarde, P. S., Carlos, L., Turci, B., Abegg, A. D., & Franco, F. L. (2018). A remarkable new species of coralsnake of the Micrurus hemprichii species group from the Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra, 54(4), 249–258.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Allen WL, Baddeley R, Scott-Samuel NE, Cuthill IC. 2013. The evolution and function of pattern diversity in snakes. Behavioral Ecology 24: 1237–1250.

Blouin-Demers, G., & Weatherhead, P. J. (2001). An experimental test of the link between foraging, habitat selection and thermoregulation in black rat snakes Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta.
Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 1006–1013. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00554.x

Das, I. (2010). A field guide to the reptiles of South-East Asia. London: Bloomsbury.

Glaudas, X., & Alexander, G. J. (2017). Food supplementation affects the foraging ecology of a low-energy, ambush-foraging snake. Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, 71(1), 5.

Ford, N. B., & Shuttlesworth, G. A. (1986). Effects of variation in food intake on locomotory performance of juvenile garter snakes. Copeia, 1986, 999–1001. https://doi.org/10.2307/1445298

Fritts, T. H. (2002). Economic costs of electrical system instability and power outages caused by snakes on the island of Guam. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 49, 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-8305(01)00108-1

Secor, S. M., & Diamond, J. (1998). A vertebrate model of extreme physiological regulation. Nature, 395(6703), 659–662. https://doi.org/10.1038/27131

Wasko, D. K., & Sasa, M. (2012). Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): An experimental study. Zoology, 115(3), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2011.10.001

Other Links/Mentions:

Ahaetulla fronticinctca feeding from the California Academy of Science - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlRHNYUr-PU

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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