February 12, 2019

044 Where Those Herps At?

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This episode is all about how hard it is to find herpetofauna, and the difficulty that causes when you try to understand their populations. We finish with a handsome web-footed new species. 

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

Main Paper References:

Barata, I. M., Griffiths, R. A., & Ridout, M. S. (2017). The power of monitoring: optimizing survey designs to detect occupancy changes in a rare amphibian population. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16491. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16534-8

Barata, I. M., Silva, E. P., & Griffiths, R. A. (2018). Predictors of Abundance of a Rare Bromeliad-Dwelling Frog ( Crossodactylodes itambe ) in the Espinhaço Mountain Range of Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 52(3), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1670/17-183

Ward, R. J., Griffiths, R. A., Wilkinson, J. W., & Cornish, N. (2017). Optimising monitoring efforts for secretive snakes: a comparison of occupancy and N-mixture models for assessment of population status. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 18074. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18343-5

Species of the Bi-Week:

Ron, S. R., Caminer, M. A., Varela-Jaramillo, A., & Almeida-Reinoso, D. (2018). A new treefrog from Cordillera del Cóndor with comments on the biogeographic affinity between Cordillera del Cóndor and the Guianan Tepuis (Anura, Hylidae, Hyloscirtus). ZooKeys, 809, 97–124. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.809.25207

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Barata, I. M., Santos, M. T., Leite, F. S., & Garcia, P. C. (2013). A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range. Zootaxa, 3731(4), 552-560.

Other Links/Mentions:

Wicked Wildlife on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWasdfCg-HlxOq4NUOshFFg

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

January 29, 2019

043 Lazy Dragons, Lazy Newts

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This fortnight is a real mix of papers. We cover Komodo dragon dispersal, newts crossing (or not) roads, and a paper looking at reptilian brains. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

De Meester, G., Huyghe, K., & Van Damme, R. (2019). Brain size, ecology and sociality: a reptilian perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1–11.

Jessop, T. S., Ariefiandy, A., Purwandana, D., Ciofi, C., Imansyah, J., Benu, Y. J., … Phillips, B. L. (2018). Exploring mechanisms and origins of reduced dispersal in island Komodo dragons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 285(1891), 20181829. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1829

Matos, C., Petrovan, S. O., Wheeler, P. M., & Ward, A. I. (2018). Short‐term movements and behaviour govern the use of road mitigation measures by a protected amphibian. Animal Conservation.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Ciofi, C., Puswati, J., Dewa, W., de Boer, M. E., Chelazzi, G., & Sastrawan, P. (2007). Preliminary Analysis of Home Range Structure in the Komodo Monitor, Varanus komodoensis. Copeia, 2007(2), 462–470. https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2007)7[462:PAOHRS]2.0.CO;2

Harlow, H. J., Purwandana, D., Jessop, T. S., & Phillips, J. A. (2010). Size-related differences in the thermoregulatory habits of free-ranging komodo dragons. International Journal of Zoology, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/921371

Purwandana, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M. J., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., Letnic, M., & Jessop, T. S. (2016). Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny. Science of Nature, 103(27), 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-016-1351-6

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

January 15, 2019

042 A Christmas Miracle

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Discussions of the reptiles of Christmas Island(s) abound in episode 42. We kick off with a paper about juvenile snake sizes and follow up with some info about reptiles crossing oceans. The Species of the Bi-Week is a brand new reptile which takes it's name from a fluffy mammal.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Aubret, F. (2015). Island colonisation and the evolutionary rates of body size in insular neonate snakes. Heredity, 115(4), 349–356. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2014.65

Oliver, P. M., Blom, M. P. K., Cogger, H. G., Fisher, R. N., Richmond, J. Q., & Woinarski, J. C. Z. (2018). Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia. Biology Letters, 14(6), 20170696. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0696

Species of the Bi-Week:

Wostl, E., Hamidy, A., Kurniawan, N., & Smith, E. N. (2017). A new species of Wolf Snake of the genus Lycodon H. Boie in Fitzinger (Squamata: Colubridae) from the Aceh Province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 4276(4), 539. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4276.4.6

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Andrew, P., Cogger, H., Driscoll, D., Flakus, S., Harlow, P., Maple, D., ... & Tiernan, B. (2018). Somewhat saved: a captive breeding programme for two endemic Christmas Island lizard species, now extinct in the wild. Oryx, 52(1), 171-174.

Aubret, F., & Shine, R. (2009). Genetic Assimilation and the Postcolonization Erosion of Phenotypic Plasticity in Island Tiger Snakes. Current Biology, 19(22), 1932–1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.061

Holt, B. G., Lessard, J.-P., Borregaard, M. K., Fritz, S. A., Araujo, M. B., Dimitrov, D., … Rahbek, C. (2013). An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World. Science, 339(6115), 74–78. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1228282

Herrel, A., Huyghe, K., Vanhooydonck, B., Backeljau, T., Breugelmans, K., Grbac, I., ... & Irschick, D. J. (2008). Rapid large-scale evolutionary divergence in morphology and performance associated with exploitation of a different dietary resource. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(12), 4792-4795.

Rocha, S., Carretero, M. A., Vences, M., Glaw, F., & James Harris, D. (2006). Deciphering patterns of transoceanic dispersal: the evolutionary origin and biogeography of coastal lizards (Cryptoblepharus) in the Western Indian Ocean region. Journal of Biogeography, 33(1), 13–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01375.x

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

 

December 11, 2018

041 Learned Lizards

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Smart lizards!? Traditionally, lizards are thought of as simple, but this episode we look at some smart skinks whose intelligence allows them to learn from each other. We look at a couple factors that influence that itelligence. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

Main Paper References:

Munch, K. L., Noble, D. W. A., Botterill-James, T., Koolhof, I. S., Halliwell, B., Wapstra, E., & While, G. M. (2018). Maternal effects impact decision-making in a viviparous lizard. Biology Letters, 14(4), 20170556. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0556

Whiting, M. J., Xu, F., Kar, F., Riley, J. L., Byrne, R. W., & Noble, D. W. A. (2018). Evidence for Social Learning in a Family Living Lizard. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6(May). https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00070

Species of the Bi-Week:

Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Lim, K. K. P., & Liang, L. J. (2017). A new species of swamp-dwelling skink (Tytthoscincus) from Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 65(October), 574–584.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Beck, B. B. (1967). A Study of Problem Solving By Gibbons. Behaviour, 28(1–2), 95–109. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853967X00190

Dayananda, B., & Webb, J. K. (2017). Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards. Biology Letters, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0002

Duckett, P. E., Morgan, M. H., & Stow, A. J. (2012). Tree-dwelling populations of the skink Egernia striolata aggregate in groups of close kin. Copeia, 2012(1), 130-134.

Gardner, M. G., Hugall, A. F., Donnellan, S. C., Hutchinson, M. N., & Foster, R. (2008). Molecular systematics of social skinks: phylogeny and taxonomy of the Egernia group (Reptilia: Scincidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 154(4), 781-794.

Munch, K. L., Noble, D. W. A., Wapstra, E., & While, G. M. (2018). Mate familiarity and social learning in a monogamous lizard. Oecologia, 188(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4153-z

Riley, J. L., Küchler, A., Damasio, T., Noble, D. W. A., Byrne, R. W., & Whiting, M. J. (2018). Learning ability is unaffected by isolation rearing in a family-living lizard. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-017-2435-9

Riley, J. L., Noble, D. W. A., Byrne, R. W., & Whiting, M. J. (2017). Early social environment influences the behaviour of a family-living lizard. Royal Society Open Science, 4(5), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.161082

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

November 27, 2018

040 Complications of Captivity

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This episode we are talking about the pet trade - from the livelihoods of people who collect wild reptiles and amphibians in Madagascar and through to one of the issues that sometimes arises: escapees becoming non-native nuisances. We round off with a Species of the Bi-Week in the form of a slippery new lizard.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Robinson, J. E., Griffiths, R. A., Fraser, I. M., Raharimalala, J., Roberts, D. L., & St. John, F. A. V. (2018). Supplying the wildlife trade as a livelihood strategy in a biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society, 23(1), art13. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09821-230113

Stringham, O. C., & Lockwood, J. L. (2018). Pet problems: Biological and economic factors that influence the release of alien reptiles and amphibians by pet owners. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(6), 2632–2640. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13237

Species of the Bi-Week:

Pui, Y. M., Karin, B. R., Bauer, A. M., & Das, I. (2017). A new species of Tropidophorus Duméril & Bibron, 1839 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Zootaxa, 4258(6), 539. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4258.6.3

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Auliya, M., Altherr, S., Ariano-Sanchez, D., Baard, E. H., Brown, C., Brown, R. M., … Ziegler, T. (2016). Trade in live reptiles, its impact on wild populations, and the role of the European market. Biological Conservation, 204, 103–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.017

Auliya, M., García-Moreno, J., Schmidt, B. R., Schmeller, D. S., Hoogmoed, M. S., Fisher, M. C., … Martel, A. (2016). The global amphibian trade flows through Europe: the need for enforcing and improving legislation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(13), 2581–2595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1193-8

Capinha, C., Seebens, H., Cassey, P., García-Díaz, P., Lenzner, B., Mang, T., … Essl, F. (2017). Diversity, biogeography and the global flows of alien amphibians and reptiles. Diversity and Distributions, 23(11), 1313–1322. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12617

Duffy, R., St John, F. A. V., Büscher, B., & Brockington, D. (2014). The militarization of anti-poaching: Undermining long term goals? Environmental Conservation, 42(4), 345–348. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892915000119

Lybbert, T. J., Aboudrare, A., Chaloud, D., Magnan, N., & Nash, M. (2011). Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(34), 13963-13968.

Other Links/Mentions:

Conservation chronicles: https://conservationchronicles.podbean.com/

Winter croc fest December 8, 2018 at Gatorama. Gatorama is an alligator farm and visitor attraction in Palmdale, Florida, USA.

Sami Asad frog video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pvwtaZPicI

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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Snakes, they’ve adapted to all sorts of environments. But what exactly has changed to allow them to take to the trees? This episode we check out what it takes to be arboreal and the impacts of taking arboreal prey. We head to the neotropics for the Species of the Bi-week for a colourful new snake. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Harrington, S. M., Haan, J. M. D. E., Shapiro, L., & Ruane, S. (2018). Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, XX, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly097/5056838

Siers, S. R., Yackel Adams, A. A., & Reed, R. N. (2018). Behavioral differences following ingestion of large meals and consequences for management of a harmful invasive snake: A field experiment. Ecology and Evolution, 8(20), 10075–10093. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4480

Species of the Bi-Week:

Bernarde, P. S., Carlos, L., Turci, B., Abegg, A. D., & Franco, F. L. (2018). A remarkable new species of coralsnake of the Micrurus hemprichii species group from the Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra, 54(4), 249–258.

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Allen WL, Baddeley R, Scott-Samuel NE, Cuthill IC. 2013. The evolution and function of pattern diversity in snakes. Behavioral Ecology 24: 1237–1250.

Blouin-Demers, G., & Weatherhead, P. J. (2001). An experimental test of the link between foraging, habitat selection and thermoregulation in black rat snakes Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta.
Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 1006–1013. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00554.x

Das, I. (2010). A field guide to the reptiles of South-East Asia. London: Bloomsbury.

Glaudas, X., & Alexander, G. J. (2017). Food supplementation affects the foraging ecology of a low-energy, ambush-foraging snake. Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, 71(1), 5.

Ford, N. B., & Shuttlesworth, G. A. (1986). Effects of variation in food intake on locomotory performance of juvenile garter snakes. Copeia, 1986, 999–1001. https://doi.org/10.2307/1445298

Fritts, T. H. (2002). Economic costs of electrical system instability and power outages caused by snakes on the island of Guam. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 49, 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-8305(01)00108-1

Secor, S. M., & Diamond, J. (1998). A vertebrate model of extreme physiological regulation. Nature, 395(6703), 659–662. https://doi.org/10.1038/27131

Wasko, D. K., & Sasa, M. (2012). Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): An experimental study. Zoology, 115(3), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2011.10.001

Other Links/Mentions:

Ahaetulla fronticinctca feeding from the California Academy of Science - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlRHNYUr-PU

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

November 10, 2018

038 A Frog Over Troubled Water

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The News Niche strikes again. A varied podcast starting with some new frog research and moving onto a truly horrifying thunderdome. 

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FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

Main Paper References:

Falaschi, M., Mangiacotti, M., Sacchi, R., Scali, S., & Razzetti, E. (2018). Electric circuit theory applied to alien invasions: A connectivity model predicting the balkan frog expansion in Northern Italy. Acta Herpetologica, 13(1), 33–42. https://doi.org/10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-20871

DiRenzo, G. V., Zipkin, E. F., Grant, E. H. C., Royle, J. A., Longo, A. V., Zamudio, K. R., & Lips, K. R. (2018). Eco‐evolutionary rescue promotes host–pathogen coexistence. Ecological Applications.

Fitzpatrick, L. D., Pasmans, F., Martel, A., & Cunningham, A. A. (2018). Epidemiological tracing of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans identifies widespread infection and associated mortalities in private amphibian collections. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 13845. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31800-z

Van Kleeck, M. J., Smith, T. A., & Holland, B. S. (2018). Paedophagic cannibalism, resource partitioning, and ontogenetic habitat use in an invasive lizard. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 1-18.

Meiri, S. (2018). Traits of lizards of the world: Variation around a successful evolutionary design. Global Ecology and Biogeography, (June 2017), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12773

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Pizzatto, L., Child, T., & Shine, R. (2008). Why be diurnal? Shifts in activity time enable young cane toads to evade cannibalistic conspecifics. Behavioral Ecology, 19(5), 990–997. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arn060

Scharf, A. K., Belant, J. L., Beyer, D. E., Wikelski, M., & Safi, K. (2018). Habitat suitability does not capture the essence of animal-defined corridors. Movement Ecology, 6(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40462-018-0136-2

Other Links/Mentions:

Namaqua chameleon cannibalism video *graphic* - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ww7km7ADqAo

Elephant shrew nose video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8WVnKT7oEI

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

 

October 16, 2018

037 Chameleon Comeback

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Chameleons -- perhaps one of the most instantly identifiable herps out there. But beyond their strange morphological adaptations what do we know about their lives? We check out a couple of papers looking at the lives of some East African species who until recently were missing some pretty basic natural history information. They are joined by a newly described species from the hills of Tanzania. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Hughes, D. F., Blackburn, D. G., Wilber, L., & Behangana, M. (2018). New distribution records, observations on natural history, and notes on reproduction of the poorly known Sudanese Unicorn Chameleon (Chamaeleonidae: Trioceros conirostratus) from Uganda, Africa. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, 12(2), 83–89.

Reaney, L. T., Yee, S., Losos, J. B., & Whiting, M. J. (2012). Ecology of the Flap-Necked Chameleon Chamaeleo dilepis In Southern Africa. Breviora, 532(September), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3099/532.1

Species of the Bi-Week:

Menegon, M., Loader, S. P., Davenport, T. R. B., Howell, K. M., Tilbury, C. R., Machaga, S., & Tolley, K. A. (2015). A new species of Chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) highlights the biological affinities between the Southern Highlands and Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Acta Herpetologica, 10(2), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-17171

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Hebrard, J. J., & Madsen, T. (1984). Dry season intersexual habitat partitioning by flap-necked chameleons (Chamaeleo dilepis) in Kenya. Biotropica, 69-72.

Main, D. C., van Vuuren, B. J., & Tolley, K. A. (2018). Cryptic diversity in the common flap-necked chameleon Chamaeleo dilepis in South Africa. African Zoology, 53(1), 11-16.

Meiri, S. (2018). Traits of lizards of the world: Variation around a successful evolutionary design. Global Ecology and Biogeography, (June 2017), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12773

Miller, A. K., Maritz, B., McKay, S., Glaudas, X., & Alexander, G. J. (2015). An ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans). Proc. R. Soc. B, 282(1821), 20152182.

Preest, M. R., Ward, M. J., Poon, T., & Hermanson, J. W. (2016). Chemical Prey Luring in Jackson’s Chameleons. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 89(2), 110–117. https://doi.org/10.1086/685455

Stipala, J. 2014. Mountain Dragons: In Search of Chameleons in the Highlands of Kenya. Jan Stipala, Singapore.

Tilbury CR, Tolley KA, Branch, WR (2006). A review of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with the descriptions of two new genera. Zootaxa 1363: 23-38. (Kinyongia, new genus).

Other Links/Mentions:

Video of flap necked chameleon vs boomslang: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnhX_ho9DsE

Another, where chameleon loses: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23TxyVZiICo

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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Revisiting the world of crocodilians, we take a look at the habitat shared by two Southeast Asian species, and discuss Siamese crocodile conservation. Our Species of the Bi-week is not a crocodile, but it is pretty scaly.

FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Ihlow, F., Bonke, R., Hartmann, T., Geissler, P., Behler, N., & Rödder, D. (2015). Habitat suitability, coverage by protected areas and population connectivity for the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis Schneider, 1801. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 25(4), 544–554. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2473

Staniewicz, A., Behler, N., Dharmasyah, S., & Jones, G. (2018). Niche partitioning between juvenile sympatric crocodilians in Mesangat, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 66, 528–537.

Species of the Bi-Week:

Karin, B. R., Freitas, E. S., Shonleben, S., Grismer, L. L., Bauer, A. M., & Das, I. (2018). Unrealized diversity in an urban rainforest: A new species of Lygosoma (Squamata: Scincidae) from western Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo). Zootaxa, 4370(4), 345–362. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4370.4.2

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Behler, N., Kopsieker, L., Staniewicz, A., Darmansyah, S., Stuebing, R., & Ziegler, T. (2018). Population size, demography and feeding preferences of the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis (Schneider, 1801) in the Mesangat Swamp in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 66, 506–516.

Eam, S. U., Sam, H., Hor, L., Mizrahi, M., & Frechette, J. L. (2017). Movement of captive-reared Siamese crocodiles Crocodylus siamensis released in the Southern Cardamom National Park , Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History, 102–108.

Starr, J. C. D. A. (2010). Development of a re-introduction and re-enforcement program for Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. Global Re-introduction Perspectives: Additional Case Studies from Around the Globe, 118.

Starr, A., Daltry, J.C. & Nhek R. (2010) DNA study reveals Siamese crocodiles at the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 28, 5–7.

Other Links/Mentions:

Siamese croc article Save Our Species: http://www.saveourspecies.org/news/brighter-future-cambodias-siamese-crocodiles

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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This fortnight we are delving into the peculiar world of caecilians. Fossorial amphibians that seldom show their faces on the surface. We chat about caecilians' strange adaptations and how a ten-year study has shed some light on their reproductive habits. The Species of the Bi-week is a suitably elongated and slimy critter. FULL REFERENCE LIST AVAILABLE AT: herphighlights.podbean.com

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Main Paper References:

Jared, C., Mailho-Fontana, P. L., Jared, S. G. S., Kupfer, A., Delabie, J. H. C., Wilkinson, M., & Antoniazzi, M. M. (2018). Life history and reproduction of the neotropical caecilian Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Siphonopidae), with special emphasis on parental care. Acta Zoologica, (March), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/azo.12254

Jared, C., Mailho-Fontana, P. L., Marques-Porto, R., Sciani, J. M., Pimenta, D. C., Brodie, E. D., & Antoniazzi, M. M. (2018). Skin gland concentrations adapted to different evolutionary pressures in the head and posterior regions of the caecilian Siphonops annulatus. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22005-5

Species of the Bi-Week:

Maddock, S. T., Wilkinson, M., & Gower, D. J. (2018). A new species of small, long-snouted Hypogeophis Peters, 1880 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Indotyphlidae) from the highest elevations of the Seychelles island of Mahé. Zootaxa, 4450(3), 359–375. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4450.3.3

Other Mentioned Papers/Studies:

Jared, C. et al. (2005). Head co-ossification, phragmosis and defense in the casque-headed tree frog Corythomantis greeningi. Journal of Zoology, 265.

Sawaya, P. (1940) Sobre o veneno das glândulas cutâneas, a secreção e o coração de Siphonops annulatus. Bot. Fac. Fill. Ci. Let. Univ. São Paulo. Ser. Zool. 4, 207–270

Wilkinson, M., Kupfer, A., Marques-Porto, R., Jeffkins, H., Antoniazzi, M. M., & Jared, C. (2008). One hundred million years of skin feeding? Extended parental care in a Neotropical caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Biology Letters, 4(4), 358–361. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2008.0217

Wilson, N. J., Stokes, A. N., Hopkins, G. R., Brodie, Jr., E. D., & Williams, C. R. (2014). Functional and physiological resistance of crayfish to amphibian toxins: tetrodotoxin resistance in the white river crayfish (Procambarus acutus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 92(11), 939–945. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2014-0128

Other Links/Mentions:

BBC Life in Cold Blood - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCF4qmxdkkM

Video of caecilian babies eating the skin of their mother: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6K6szXrBHwM

Music:

Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson

Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com

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